Crohn"s disease is a chronic inflammatory disease involving predominantly the small intestine and colon. The symptoms and the activity of the disease can come and go. Even though many effective medications are available to control the activity of the disease, there is as yet no cure for Crohn"s disease. Surgery can significantly improve the quality of life in selected individuals, but recurrence of the disease after surgery is common. The disease can have complications, both within and outside of the intestine. Newer treatments are actively being evaluated. A better understanding of the role of genetics and environmental factors in the cause of Crohn"s disease may lead to improved treatments and prevention of the disease.
Crohn"s Disease At A Glance کرون در یک نگاه
What are the complications of Crohn"s disease?
پیامد های بیماری کرون Complications of Crohn"s disease may be related or unrelated to the inflammation within the intestine (such as intestinal or extra-intestinal). Intestinal complications of Crohn"s disease include obstruction and perforation of the small intestine, abscesses (collections of pus), fistulae, and intestinal bleeding. Massive distention or dilatation of the colon (megacolon), and rupture (perforation) of the intestine are potentially life-threatening complications. Both generally require surgery, but, fortunately, these two complications are rare. Recent data suggest that there is an increased risk of cancer of the small intestine and colon in patients with long-standing Crohn"s disease.
Extra-intestinal complications involve the skin, joints, spine, eyes, liver, and bile ducts. Skin involvement includes painful red raised spots on the legs (erythema nodosum) and an ulcerating skin condition generally found around the ankles called pyoderma gangrenosum. Painful eye conditions (uveitis, episcleritis) can cause visual difficulties. Arthritis can cause pain, swelling, and stiffness of the joints of the extremities. Inflammation of the low back (sacroiliac joint arthritis) and of the spine (ankylosing spondylitis) can cause pain and stiffness of the spine. Inflammation of the liver (hepatitis) or bile ducts (primary sclerosing cholangitis) also can occur. Sclerosing cholangitis causes narrowing and obstruction of the ducts draining the liver and can lead to yellow skin (jaundice), recurrent bacterial infections, and liver cirrhosis with liver failure. Sclerosing cholangitis with liver failure is one of the reasons for performing liver transplantation. Sclerosing cholangitis frequently is complicated by the development of cancer of the bile ducts.